TH-1 cells are mostly involved in cellular immunity; as TH-2 cells are mainly involved in humoral immunity.  If a patient suffers from certain kinds of leprosy, the cytokine that you would administer to the patient would be gamma-interferon.  A naive T-cell becomes a TH-1 cell and it make gamma-interferon.  The …

NBC NEWS   WASHINGTON — Sen. John McCain promised Thursday that he’ll “be back soon,” but there could be significant national political implications if the Arizona Republican leaves office following his brain cancer diagnosis. Arizona law requires Republican Gov. Doug Ducey to appoint a member of the same party to fill …

Washington Post MOSCOW — The ad begins: “Hey, did you see?” one Russian tween messages another on Russia’s version of Facebook. The news is that Putin’s going to be talking to kids on TV. “No way!” the other replies. “What would you ask Putin?” They muse. School exams. Where will I …

New York Times LOS ANGELES — A generation since O.J. Simpson captured the nation’s attention when he was tried for a double murder, the former football star stands as someone who unwittingly helped shape the modern news media and popular ideas about the police, race relations and Los Angeles, the …

Pre-T cells from the bone marrow go to the thymus.  Once in the thymus, they have to go to the lymph nodes, and after they’ve been activated they have to go to the site of infection.  T-cell response to self-antigens is prevented by B-7 cells on the surface of the …

B-cells develop in the bone marrow.  The development of the B-cell in the bone marrow is where the B-cell develops it’s immunoglobulin gene that it expresses on the surface.  B-cell development begins there with heavy chain gene formation with the genes heavy V and heavy DJ.  Say it hasn’t rearranged …

WASHINGTON POST   Jude Sparks was out on a family hike in the desert near Las Cruces, N.M., testing walkie-talkies, when the then-9-year-old boy tripped over a rocky protrusion. When Jude got up again, he examined what appeared to be two large, fossilized teeth jutting out from the terrain. Farther up, …

LOVELOCK, Nev. — Former football star and convicted felon O.J. Simpson has made his case before a parole board Thursday, and will now await a verdict concerning his freedom after deliberations. Simpson was convicted in 2008 of an armed robbery involving two sports memorabilia dealers in a Las Vegas hotel …

Virus particles are too large to diffuse across the plasma membrane.  Receptors are needed to get viruses into cells.  Then, the genome can be transferred inside the cell. Only viruses of fungi, that have no extracellular phases; and viruses of plants, which enter cells by mechanical damage, don’t utilize receptors …

A little more than a year after she married, Tiffany Smiley walked into a hospital room to tell her husband he was blind. A car bomb in Mosul, Iraq, had sent shrapnel into Army Maj. Scott Smiley’s eyes as he was serving as an infantry platoon leader and ultimately led …