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There are several pathogens out there.  How can you make antibodies to each particular pathogen?  The answer is that antibody molecules go under several different mutations to produce higher affinities.  CD4 helper cells recognize MHC II antigens.  The somatic mutations that occur in the immunoglobulin gene also cause increased affinity. …

HIV (which stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus) was discovered in the late 1970’s. Some of the people that acquired the HIV virus were coming down with AIDS(Acute Immuno – Deficiency Syndrome).  These patients started dying from very common diseases.  The HIV virus was found by assaying for the enzyme reverse …

MONMOUTH BEACH, N.J. — The manager at a beach in New Jersey recently saved a man who stopped breathing. That manager — who had also spent years as a lifeguard — is now being hailed as a hero. As CBS2’s Reena Roy reports, it was a normal summer Sunday at Monmouth Beach when …

If you knock-out the innate immune system, it’s more serious than if you knock-out the adaptive immune system.  The innate immune system is needed for the patient to survive.  If you knock-out the adaptive immune system which is composed of B-cells and T-cells the level of patients’ infected versus the …

As college tuition continues to rise, many families are weighing which schools offer the best return on their investment. Is it better to save money by going to a lower-priced public college? Or are costlier private colleges are better deal if their graduates end up in higher-paying jobs? Money magazine’s new ranking …

The why and how radiation performs it’s role as a treatment for oncologists is as follows.When the photon hits the electron that ultimately damages the DNA, radiation has acted directly.  However, when the photon hits an electron, that ionizes water forming hydroxyl radicals that float around and hit the DNA, …

The linear accelerator was developed by Henry Kaplan at Stanford University.  The treatment of malignant and non-malignant conditions was limited by skin toxicities.  Linear accelerators generate high energy treatment regimens.  The physician must examine the patient and determine if the cancer patient should be treated with radiation therapy.  He must …

Small cell lung cancer looks like oats under the microscope.  It begins in the bronchi; and then quickly grows and spreads to other parts of the body; including the lymph nodes.  Small cell lung cancer occurs as less than 20% of all lung cancers; and is typically caused by tobacco …

Alzheimer’s disease is a slow , fatal disease of the  brain affecting 1 out of 10 people over the age of 65.  No one is immune.  The disease come on gradually.  As two normal protein fragments, called plaques and tangles accumulate in the brain, and kill brain cells.  They start …

Radiation therapy is using high voltage radiation.  An x-ray is typically around 120,000 volts.  Radiation therapists use approximately 6 million volts.  There are transformers in the machine that produce that. The size of the machines are big and bulky.  It’s like a big x-ray machine.  The patients don’t feel or …