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Bacteria are among the oldest living organisms. Bacteria can be found everywhere.  Some bacteria are inoxious; but others can invade humans’ bodies and harm them. Antibodies protect people against infections.  Antibiotics destroy most bacteria; and the immune system is able to handle the surviving bacteria.  Some  antibiotics work to interfere …

Solvents in pesticides, combustion smoke, viruses,  ultraviolet radiation, and ionizing radiation can all damage the DNA of the cell.  When DNA is affected by radiation, the greatest amount of damage is done to cell functions.  The effect of ionizing radiation on a cell may be direct, or indirect (as when …

Authored or posted by Pao Chang | While the term psycho-acoustic medicine may be relatively new in our world, the practices of using sound and frequencies to impact the physical and emotional health of the body has been used since the beginning of time. From Gregorian chants in churches, to the chanting …

Cancer is caused by uncontrolled cell growth.  A predisposition to cancer may be inherited from one’s relatives.  A predisposition to some cancers, such as skin cancers, can be brought about by excessive exposure to ultraviolet light.  Cells may be in interphase (in which the cells are replicating their DNA, growing, …

Simulations are done with cancer patients undergoing radiation treatments to determine how the patient will feel and react when they are placed in position for their actual radiation treatments.  Although the doctor prescribes what position the patients should ultimately be in during the radiation treatments; the radiation  therapists are also …

TH-1 cells are mostly involved in cellular immunity; as TH-2 cells are mainly involved in humoral immunity.  If a patient suffers from certain kinds of leprosy, the cytokine that you would administer to the patient would be gamma-interferon.  A naive T-cell becomes a TH-1 cell and it make gamma-interferon.  The …

Pre-T cells from the bone marrow go to the thymus.  Once in the thymus, they have to go to the lymph nodes, and after they’ve been activated they have to go to the site of infection.  T-cell response to self-antigens is prevented by B-7 cells on the surface of the …

B-cells develop in the bone marrow.  The development of the B-cell in the bone marrow is where the B-cell develops it’s immunoglobulin gene that it expresses on the surface.  B-cell development begins there with heavy chain gene formation with the genes heavy V and heavy DJ.  Say it hasn’t rearranged …

Virus particles are too large to diffuse across the plasma membrane.  Receptors are needed to get viruses into cells.  Then, the genome can be transferred inside the cell. Only viruses of fungi, that have no extracellular phases; and viruses of plants, which enter cells by mechanical damage, don’t utilize receptors …

The rationale behind phosphorylation is that kinases have the ability to phosphorylate thousands of molecules that can thus turn on many different cellular functions.  Kinases may dramatically amplify cellular activity. In the immune system, two chains of the T-cell receptor are brought together by the activation of a kinase domain. …