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Pre-T cells from the bone marrow go to the thymus.  Once in the thymus, they have to go to the lymph nodes, and after they’ve been activated they have to go to the site of infection.  T-cell response to self-antigens is prevented by B-7 cells on the surface of the …

B-cells develop in the bone marrow.  The development of the B-cell in the bone marrow is where the B-cell develops it’s immunoglobulin gene that it expresses on the surface.  B-cell development begins there with heavy chain gene formation with the genes heavy V and heavy DJ.  Say it hasn’t rearranged …

Virus particles are too large to diffuse across the plasma membrane.  Receptors are needed to get viruses into cells.  Then, the genome can be transferred inside the cell. Only viruses of fungi, that have no extracellular phases; and viruses of plants, which enter cells by mechanical damage, don’t utilize receptors …

The rationale behind phosphorylation is that kinases have the ability to phosphorylate thousands of molecules that can thus turn on many different cellular functions.  Kinases may dramatically amplify cellular activity. In the immune system, two chains of the T-cell receptor are brought together by the activation of a kinase domain. …

Nucleocapsids are nucleic acids complexed with the protein within a virus.  To grasp how small viruses are, a polio virus is 30 nanometers.  The viruses have spikes on their outside.  Tobacco mosaic viruses are round shaped viruses.  Many capsid proteins can reassemble into virus like proteins (VLPs).  Hepatitits B-Virus (HBV) …

There are several pathogens out there.  How can you make antibodies to each particular pathogen?  The answer is that antibody molecules go under several different mutations to produce higher affinities.  CD4 helper cells recognize MHC II antigens.  The somatic mutations that occur in the immunoglobulin gene also cause increased affinity. …

HIV (which stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus) was discovered in the late 1970’s. Some of the people that acquired the HIV virus were coming down with AIDS(Acute Immuno – Deficiency Syndrome).  These patients started dying from very common diseases.  The HIV virus was found by assaying for the enzyme reverse …

MONMOUTH BEACH, N.J. — The manager at a beach in New Jersey recently saved a man who stopped breathing. That manager — who had also spent years as a lifeguard — is now being hailed as a hero. As CBS2’s Reena Roy reports, it was a normal summer Sunday at Monmouth Beach when …

If you knock-out the innate immune system, it’s more serious than if you knock-out the adaptive immune system.  The innate immune system is needed for the patient to survive.  If you knock-out the adaptive immune system which is composed of B-cells and T-cells the level of patients’ infected versus the …

As college tuition continues to rise, many families are weighing which schools offer the best return on their investment. Is it better to save money by going to a lower-priced public college? Or are costlier private colleges are better deal if their graduates end up in higher-paying jobs? Money magazine’s new ranking …