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Bats are loaded with all kinds of viruses, no matter where in the world you sample them.  However, the bats themselves are for the most part very healthy.  When they fly they generate a lot of oxidative radicals, that allows them to tolerate a lot of viruses as well.  Adenovirus …

Evolution is a necessary accumulation of mutation and selection.  RNA viruses can participate in evolution in a day.  After 25 to 30 plaque to plaque assays, a scientist gets a sick population of viruses.  A genetic bottleneck occurs.  The diversity of the virus is causing fewer viruses to be selected …

New genomic techniques are now being used to diagnose outbreak techniques in a timely fashion.  Two techniques commonly used in the discovery of viral pathogens in patients are serology and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction).  Speed of diagnosis  is of the upmost importance since 50% of the people suffering from a …

HUFFINGTON POST The Food and Drug Administration on Wednesday announced what the agency calls a “historic action” — the first approval of a cell-based gene therapy in the United States. The FDA approved Kymriah, which scientists refer to as a “living drug” because it involves using genetically modified immune cells from patients …

Vaccinations mobilize the host immune system to prevent viral infections.  Additionally, the chain of transmission is broken by vaccination.  When active vaccines are injected into the patient, they confer long term protection.  Active vaccines are constructed from a modified form of the pathogen or small material derived from the pathogen. …

Transformation of cells means making cells immortal.  The cells pile up and don’t have spaces between them.  Transformed cells have been known about since the middle of the twentieth century.  One immortal cell line used in laboratories are HeLa cells.  Transformed cells have loss of anchorage dependence and  contact inhibition. …

What makes viruses that get into the Central Nervous System (CNS) hard to fight, is that no anti-viral agent can get into the brain past the blood:brain barrier.  However, measles for example, can get by the blood:brain barrier.  Infected neurons that survive the primary infection makes new viral particles; thus …

Both the viral and host genes determine virulence.  The scientist can compare the virulence of different types of the same virus with one another; but it is impossible to compare the virulence of two different viruses.  To study the roles that different genes play, scientists make mutations in the genes …

The US will get to see a solar eclipse on August 21. While the entire country will get to witness at least a partial eclipse, the lucky people who live along or travel to the 70-mile-wide streak of totality will see the moon completely block out the sun’s light as it crosses between the Earth and the sun. …

  THE HUFFINGTON POST Spotify says white supremacist bands are not welcome on its platform after being alerted to their presence in a week that has seen a wave of individuals and public figures stand up to messages of hate. “Illegal content or material that favors hatred or incites violence against race, religion, …