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Donald Mandel

Donald Mandel

Over 25 million Americans, 9% of the population have diabetes.  Type II diabetes is growing.  The occurrence of obesity seems to be related to Type II diabetes. The pancreas is the organ that produces insulin.  In diabetics, the pancreas still produces insulin, just not enough.  Also, there exists a condition …

The human genome is affected by both environmental and genetic factors.  By 2004, the human genome was sequenced.  It consists of three billion base pairs.  Humans seem to have 99.5% of their genome the same as everyone else.  The .5% of the genome that is variable leads to variations in …

Immunosuppressive drugs used in organ transplantation must be selective in order to block some T and B cells.  They must also be non-toxic to the kidney; in other words non-nephrotoxic.  The immunosuppressive drugs must not promote malignancies; and not aggravate cardiovascular risk factors.  The drugs should also improve compliance of …

Integrative Cancer Care involves complementary therapies which accompany conventional surgery, radiation, and  chemotherapy.  It does not act to replace conventional cancer care which has already cured fourteen million Americans.  Integrative Oncology simply is meant to reduce the risk of cancer; and for patients to manage their symptoms.  Integrative oncology involves …

Bats are loaded with all kinds of viruses, no matter where in the world you sample them.  However, the bats themselves are for the most part very healthy.  When they fly they generate a lot of oxidative radicals, that allows them to tolerate a lot of viruses as well.  Adenovirus …

Evolution is a necessary accumulation of mutation and selection.  RNA viruses can participate in evolution in a day.  After 25 to 30 plaque to plaque assays, a scientist gets a sick population of viruses.  A genetic bottleneck occurs.  The diversity of the virus is causing fewer viruses to be selected …

New genomic techniques are now being used to diagnose outbreak techniques in a timely fashion.  Two techniques commonly used in the discovery of viral pathogens in patients are serology and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction).  Speed of diagnosis  is of the upmost importance since 50% of the people suffering from a …

Vaccinations mobilize the host immune system to prevent viral infections.  Additionally, the chain of transmission is broken by vaccination.  When active vaccines are injected into the patient, they confer long term protection.  Active vaccines are constructed from a modified form of the pathogen or small material derived from the pathogen. …

Transformation of cells means making cells immortal.  The cells pile up and don’t have spaces between them.  Transformed cells have been known about since the middle of the twentieth century.  One immortal cell line used in laboratories are HeLa cells.  Transformed cells have loss of anchorage dependence and  contact inhibition. …

What makes viruses that get into the Central Nervous System (CNS) hard to fight, is that no anti-viral agent can get into the brain past the blood:brain barrier.  However, measles for example, can get by the blood:brain barrier.  Infected neurons that survive the primary infection makes new viral particles; thus …