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Donald Mandel

Donald Mandel

What makes viruses that get into the Central Nervous System (CNS) hard to fight, is that no anti-viral agent can get into the brain past the blood:brain barrier.  However, measles for example, can get by the blood:brain barrier.  Infected neurons that survive the primary infection makes new viral particles; thus …

Both the viral and host genes determine virulence.  The scientist can compare the virulence of different types of the same virus with one another; but it is impossible to compare the virulence of two different viruses.  To study the roles that different genes play, scientists make mutations in the genes …

The host cell of the virus provides the assembly processes of the virus.  Non-viral DNA isn’t packaged into the virus particle.  They provide cellular chaperones, transport systems, and secretory pathways.  Macatazole is a pharmaceutical that disrupts the formation of microtubules.  RNA viruses usually synthesize their proteins on the surface of …

Kidney patients usually go to dialysis centers three days a week when necessary.  Dialysis machines filter your blood externally to your body.  Kidney patients need to be attached to the dialysis machines for four hours during each treatment.  Chronic kidney disease is the ninth leading cause of death in the …

The pathogen has developed ways to evade the immune system.  Additionally, an over aggressive immune system can cause damage itself.  Pathogens usually replicate in the host, spread to new hosts, and avoid stimulating  strong immune responses.  Some pathogens, such as HIV, evade the classical immune response.  Additionally, there are hundreds …

Hydrocephalus is when excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the skull.  The excess liquid compresses the brain and it’s blood vessels.  In the new born, where the size of the cranian is not set yet, the head size enlargens.  This condition may become fatal in both adults and infants.  It may …

The environment that normal mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract has is different from the environment of the normal lymph nodes.  The normal uninfected lymph node doesn’t have antigen.  However, the gut is loaded with bacteria.  Whatever anatomy that is exposed to the outside environment such as the gastrointestinary tract and …

Bacteria are among the oldest living organisms. Bacteria can be found everywhere.  Some bacteria are inoxious; but others can invade humans’ bodies and harm them. Antibodies protect people against infections.  Antibiotics destroy most bacteria; and the immune system is able to handle the surviving bacteria.  Some  antibiotics work to interfere …

Solvents in pesticides, combustion smoke, viruses,  ultraviolet radiation, and ionizing radiation can all damage the DNA of the cell.  When DNA is affected by radiation, the greatest amount of damage is done to cell functions.  The effect of ionizing radiation on a cell may be direct, or indirect (as when …

Cancer is caused by uncontrolled cell growth.  A predisposition to cancer may be inherited from one’s relatives.  A predisposition to some cancers, such as skin cancers, can be brought about by excessive exposure to ultraviolet light.  Cells may be in interphase (in which the cells are replicating their DNA, growing, …